What does this project involve?
The Child to Parent Violence (CPV) Programme aims to improve the behaviour of 10 to 14 year olds who are showing violence towards their parents, carers or guardians. Delivered by RISE Mutual CIC, the intervention provides sessions first to parents then, if appropriate, to children. Sessions with parents teach Non-Violent Resistance (NVR) techniques, including reconciliation methods. Sessions with children use Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) techniques intended to change negative behaviours. Programme delivery is tailored to the specific needs presented by the young people.
Why did YEF fund this project?
Non-Violent Resistance (NVR) techniques are relatively novel in parental and family interventions. While they have gained some popularity in practice, we lack robust evidence on their impact on reducing serious youth violence. As YEF’s toolkit explains, more broadly, there are some significant gaps in the evidence base underpinning parenting programmes, and in the evidence for the use of CBT to reduce serious youth violence and offending. YEF funded a feasibility and pilot evaluation of the CPV programme to begin to extend the evidence base underpinning these approaches.
The feasibility study tested what factors supported or interfered with programme delivery, whether the intervention’s recruitment, retention and reach were feasible, and service users’ views and experiences of the intervention. By the end of the feasibility phase, 90 families were enrolled in the intervention; during the pilot, this rose to 104 families (107 children). Eleven participants (6 RISE practitioners, 3 referrers and 2 parents/carers) took part in feasibility study interviews.
The pilot study aimed to describe the referral and screening process, assess family retention, ascertain the readiness for a larger scale evaluation, evaluate the implementation process, and assess the direction and magnitude of potential changes in child behaviour and family-functioning outcomes over time. Fifteen participants (5 parents/carers, 3 referrers and 7 managerial and practitioner professionals from RISE) were interviewed for the pilot, while quantitative data for the 104 families involved were analysed. Data collected related to the delivery of the programme, demographic data, and one YEF core measure ( the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of behaviour). 61% of families enrolled in the programme were recorded by the intervention as White; 11% as having Mixed heritage; 10% as Black; 1% as Asian; 7% as Other and no ethnicity information was provided for 10%.
The evaluation was undertaken from February 2020 to June 2022. Both the feasibility and pilot studies took place during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring both the delivery and evaluation teams to adapt to challenging circumstances.
|In the feasibility study, delivery of the CPV programme was supported by the regular exchange of information between referrers and RISE practitioners. Referrers were positive about the planning and communication from RISE staff and appreciated being updated on the progress of families. RISE project staff reported that non-judgemental, supportive approaches were important for facilitating delivery. They also observed that many families had very complex needs beyond those initially anticipated.|
|In the feasibility study, most of the referrals met the eligibility criteria. Demand for the intervention was high, while initial enrolment and retention rates were promising. The two parent/carers interviewed gave very positive comments about the attentive and flexible support provided. Staff, referrers and parents also noted that the blended model of phone calls and face-to-face meetings imposed as a result of COVID-19 restrictions worked well.|
|In the pilot study, retention in the intervention was high, with 76% of enrolled families completing the programme. However, core measure completion was a serious challenge. Less than half of families provided SDQ data after 12 months. COVID-19 contributed to challenges with data collection. However, even in this context, data collection was low.|
|The pilot study found that the referral and screening processes worked well, and the programme was largely delivered as intended for parents. Children’s perceptions of the CPV programme, and the implementation of the child-focused components, could not be assessed due to their limited engagement in the intervention and non-engagement with the evaluation.|
|The evaluator judges that the CPV programme has the potential to be evaluated in a large-scale randomised controlled trial. However, several issues require resolving before proceeding, including improving measure completion rates.|
What will YEF do next?
YEF is currently exploring further evaluation of the programme.